Instructions for Authors
A note on plagiarism (please read before submission): There is a zero-tolerance policy towards plagiarism (including self-plagiarism) in our journal. Manuscripts are screened for plagiarism before, during, and after publication, and if found they will be rejected at any stage of processing. In case that a paper is already published in our journal and appears in PubMed Central but plagiarism is still detected, it will be retracted from our journal and the authors' institutions and department heads will be notified to take actions.
All files should be submitted online in the journal's web site. Submissions by email of any manuscript files, either to the editors or to the journal office, are not acceptable and are discarded automatically.Please embed figures and tables in the manuscript to become one single file for submission (Word or PDF) in the journal website. Once submission is complete, the system will generate a manuscript ID sent to author's contact email.
Supplementary file: The initial submission allows one supplementary file to be submitted together with the main manuscript file and cover letter. If you have more than one supplementary files, you can submit the extra ones after the initial submission in the manuscript login page (under "Supplementary file" heading, click on the link "[Add More]"). Large files can be compressed into a ZIP file when submitting, but not RAR. Supplementary materials appear online linked to the paper and are not edited.
The submitting author should be the corresponding author(s).
To submit a new manuscript, please go to here.
To submit a revision, please login in here and follow the "Submit revision" link. Please do not submit revision as new submission otherwise it may be rejected.
Manuscripts that have been previously posted to preprint servers (e.g. bioRxiv, medRxiv, etc.) are allowed for submissions to our journal. Authors can also post the manuscript to the preprint servers if the manuscript is accepted.
Manuscripts that are judged to be of insufficient quality or unlikely to be competitive enough for publication are rejected during initial screening. The remaining manuscripts go through a single-blind peer review process with two or more reviewers. In single-blind review, reviewers' identities are hidden from the authors but not vice versa. Possible decisions after review are: accept as is, minor revision, major revision, or reject. Authors should submit back their revisions within 1 month in the case of minor revision, or 3 months in the case of major revision. To submit a revision please sign in here and use the submit button at the right side of page. Manuscripts with significant results are typically reviewed and published at the highest priority.
Note: After the manuscript is accepted, any inquiry related to publishing (copyediting, fees, proofs, etc) must be addressed to our publishing team only. Please do not send or cc any publishing-related inquiry to our editor-in-chief or editors as they are not involved in the publishing process after a manuscript is accepted.
This journal uses single blind peer review - the reviewers’ identities are not known to the authors while the authors' details are shown to the reviewers.
Articles in our journal are now distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY license) Authors retain copyright of the article.
For articles published before June 10 2019, the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License was used by default and copyright is with the publisher. Please refer to each individual article's copyright and open access statement.
There is no publication fee during the current promotional period of this journal. There is no submission charge.
Authors should provide a graphical abstract (a beautifully designed feature figure) to represent the paper aiming to catch the attention and interest of readers. Graphical abstract will be published online in the table of content. The graphical abstract should be colored, and kept within an area of 12 cm (width) x 6 cm (height). Image should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi and line art 1200dpi. Note: Height of the image should be no more than half of the width. Please avoid putting too much information into the graphical abstract as it occupies only a small space. Graphical abstract can be provided in the format of jpg (preferred), PDF, Word, PowerPoint, or png, after a manuscript is accepted for publication. See more sample graphical abstracts in http://www.thno.org.
Format for Publication
Upon acceptance of the manuscript, please provide a final version (in Microsoft Word file) for copyediting purpose. Note that the final manuscript must be provided in Microsoft Word, and we cannot accept Latex and Tex files.
Please include figures at the end of manuscript Word file, or provide a high quality PDF containing all figures. Make sure images are of highest resolution, and any letters inside are clear and legible. If the figures or tables are created using PowerPoint, Photoshop, Microsoft Excel etc, please also provide the original files from those programs.
The first letter of each word in title should use upper case. Include in the first page the article title, author's names, affiliations, corresponding author's phone/fax number and/or email. Also provide 3-6 keywords.
Abstract should not contain citations to references, any images or math equations.
Author's names: please provide full names. Important! Please write first name and middle name before surname or lastname, e.g., "Mike Johnson" (not "Johnson, Mike"; not "Johnson M."; not "M. Johnson").
Authorship: The list of authors and contributors should conform to the guidelines as set out in the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
In the main text or figure/table legends, please do not color the fonts or use smaller font size to distinguish one text from other texts. In our xml, only bold, italic, superscript and subscript are allowed.
Please do not add number before subtitles (This does not apply for Review or mini-review).
Tables and Figures
Tables and Figures should be numbered consecutively. Citation of tables and figures should use the format: Table 1, Table 2, ... Figure 1, Figure 2, ... (or Fig. 1, Fig. 2, ...). Parts in a figure can be identified by A, B, C, D, ... . and cited as Figure 2A, Figure 2B, Figure 2C. Do not abbreviate the word "Table" to "Tab.".
Tables: Please create/format tables using Microsoft Word table format. Tables must be editable, and not as images.
Figures: Resolutions for line arts must be at least 1200 dpi, for color photos 600 dpi or higher, and for black/white photos at least 600dpi or higher. Graphics downloaded from Internet are not acceptable because the 72 dpi resolution is too low for satisfactory reproduction. Please submit one (1) highest quality PDF containing all figures (one figure per page). Please remove the word "Figure" or "Fig" from the image itself.
Math Formulas and Symbols
Simple mathematical formulas should be constructed in normal text using superscript, subscript, italic, and symbols in Microsoft Word.
- Use symbols in the Fonts: (normal text) or Symbol fonts. To insert a symbol, use Insert/symbol in the Word menu.
- Use / for "divide" or "over". For example, 1/7, 5/(4+6).
- Use Symbol fonts for "±"; "≤" and "≥" (avoid underline).
Please avoid using math equations of Word whenever possible, because in full text xml/html version, math equations are replaced by images, which does not look good in the normal flow of text.
References should be numbered consecutively starting from 1, and should be cited in the manuscript by numbers, e.g. [1,2,3], (not cited by author and date). One article per reference only (not 1a, 1b, 1c). Please avoid putting personal communications, unpublished observations, conference abstracts or conference papers in references. Do not format references as footnotes. Please use plain text in references, no image or math equation. A reference style for EndNote may be found here.
Please note the number of references must not exceed 200 for any article.
- Journal Paper
Use the sequence: [Author surname] [Author initials], [Other author surnames & initials]. [Article title]. [Journal name abbreviation]. [Year]; [Volume]: [First page number]-[Last page number].
- Journal paper must have journal name (or journal abbreviation), year, volume and page numbers.
- Please make sure that the year of publication is not missing.
- Please use ":" to separate volume and first page number.
- Do not bold or italicize the title, journal name, or any part of references. Omit any "." in the journal abbreviations.
- 1. Eknoyan G, Beck GJ, Cheung AK, et al. Effect of dialysis dose and membrane flux in maintenance hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 2010-9.
- Supplement example:
2. Volk HD, Reinke P, Krausch D, et al. Monocyte deactivation-rationale for a new therapeutic strategy in sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 1996; 22 (Suppl 4):S474-S481.
- No author given example:
3. [No authors listed]. Medicare program; criteria for Medicare coverage of adult liver transplants-HCFA. Final notice. Fed Regist. 1991; 56(71):15006-15018.
- In press example:
4. Cheung TMT, et al. Effectiveness of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of acute respiratory failure in severe acute respiratory syndrome. Chest; in press.
- Epub ahead of print example:
5. Li W, Chen Y, Cameron DJ, et al. Elovl4 haploinsufficiency does not induce early onset retinal degeneration in mice. Vision Res 2007; [Epub ahead of print].
- Kiloh LG, Smith JS, Johnson GF, et al. Physical treatment in psychiatry. Boston, USA: Blackwell Scientific Publisher; 1988.
- Chapters in Edited Book
- Beckenbough RD, Linscheid RL. Arthroplasty in the hand and wrist. In: Green DP, ed. Operative Hand Surgery, 2nd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1988: 167-214.
- Web Site (discouraged)
- [Internet] WHO. Summary of probable SARS cases with onset of illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003. http://www.who.int/
- [Internet] Kornberg R. http://nobelprize.org/
DOI: Please remove the "[pii]" field in any doi. E.g., doi:00932.2006 [pii] 10.1152/japplphysiol.00932.2006. Remove "00932.2006 [pii]".
Please do not add web links or web URLs in references.
Web pages and Web links
We strongly discourage any mentioning or citing web links/URLs in your paper, since web addresses are changed frequently by their owners. This often results in broken links (dead links) in your paper in the future. It is annoying if readers cannot find the web pages when clicking on the links.
Supplementary materials may include figures, tables, methods, videos, and other materials. They are available online linked to the original published article. Supplementary tables and figures should be labeled with "S1", "S2", ... E.g. Table S1, Figure S1, Video/Movie S1, and cited in the manuscript in the same way. Do not write them as "S Table 1" or "S Figure 1".
The maximum file size for supplementary materials is 10MB each uncompressed. Please kept the files as small possible to avoid the frustrations experienced by readers with downloading large files. Large files can be compressed into a ZIP file, but not RAR.
Supplementary materials are published as provided by the authors, and are not copyedited.
Abbreviations must be presented in one paragraph, in the format: "term: definition". Please separate the items by ";". Please strictly follow the format.
E.g. HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; SIV: simian immunodeficiency virus; ....
Ethics Committee Approval and Patient Consent
Experimental research involving human or animals should have been approved by author's institutional review board or ethics committee. This information can be mentioned in the manuscript including the name of the board/committee that gave the approval. Investigations involving humans will have been performed in accordance with the principles of Declaration of Helsinki. And the use of animals in experiments will have observed the Interdisciplinary Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education by the New York Academy of Sciences, Ad Hoc Animal Research Committee.
If the manuscript contains photos or parts of photos of patients, informed consent from each patient should be obtained. Patient's identities and privacy should be carefully protected in the manuscript.
Competing interests that might interfere with the objective presentation of the research findings contained in the manuscript should be declared in a paragraph heading "Competing interests" (after Acknowledgment section and before References). Examples of competing interests are ownership of stock in a company, commercial grants, board membership, etc. If there is no competing interest, please use the statement "The authors have declared that no competing interest exists".
Authors now have the option to publish a biography together with the paper, with information such as MD/PhD degree, past and present positions, research interests, awards, etc. This increases the profile of the authors and is well received by international readers. Author biography can be added to the end of paper, in a section heading "Author biography". See samples of author biography, Sample A or Sample B.
Commercial advertising is not allowed in our journal.
Reprints can be ordered after copyediting and publication. Reprints are now printed on glossy paper with cover page. They are made of highest quality suitable for scientific corresponding.
For general information about preparing biomedical manuscripts, please consult the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication", available from http://www.icmje.org/.