|Format for Publication|
Instructions for Authors
A note on plagiarism: There is a zero-tolerance policy towards plagiarism (including self-plagiarism) in our journals. Manuscripts are screened for plagiarism before, during, and after publication, and if found they will be rejected at any stage of processing. In case that a paper is already published in our journal and appears in PubMed Central but plagiarism is still detected, it will be retracted from our journal and the authors' institutions and department heads will be notified to take actions.
Please embed figures and tables in the manuscript to become one single file for submission. Once submission is complete, the system will generate a manuscript ID sent to author's contact email. Submissions by email are not acceptable at any time.
Supplementary file: The initial submission allows one supplementary file to be submitted together with the main manuscript file and cover letter. If you have more than one supplementary files, you can submit the extra ones after the initial submission in the manuscript login page (under "Supplementary file" heading, click on the link "[Add More]").
Manuscripts that are judged to be of insufficient quality or unlikely to be competitive enough for publication will be rejected during initial screening. The remaining manuscripts go through a peer review process with two or more reviewers, and possible decisions are: accept as is, minor revision, major revision, or reject. Authors should submit back their revisions within 1 month in the case of minor revision, or 3 months in the case of major revision. To submit a revision please sign in here and use the submit button at the right side of page. Manuscripts with significant results are typically reviewed and published at the highest priority.
Important note: After manuscript is accepted, any inquiry should be addressed to our publishing team only. Please do not send any publishing related inquiry to our editors or editors-in-chief as they are not involved in the process after a manuscript is accepted.
Articles in our journal are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. We also use the CC-BY license for authors funded by Wellcome Trust, RCUK and other funding agencies if required, or if authors request.
There is no publication charge during the current promotional period of this journal.
Format for Publication
Upon acceptance of the manuscript, please provide a final version (in Microsoft Word file) for copyediting purpose. Note that the final manuscript must be provided in Microsoft Word, and we cannot accept Latex and Tex files.
Important note and warning: Please do not send any publishing related inquiry to our editors or editors-in-chief after a manuscript is accepted.
Please include figures at the end of manuscript Word file, or provide a high quality PDF containing all figures. Make sure images are of highest resolution, and any letters inside are clear and legible. If the figures or tables are created using PowerPoint, Photoshop, Microsoft Excel etc, please also provide the original files from those programs.
The first letter of each word in title should use upper case. Include in the first page the article title, author's names, affiliations, corresponding author's phone/fax number and/or email. Abstract should not contain citations to references. Also provide 3-6 keywords.
Author's names: please provide full names. Important! Please write first name and middle name before surname or lastname, e.g., "Mike Johnson" (not "Johnson, Mike"; not "Johnson M."; not "M. Johnson").
Authorship: The list of authors and contributors should conform to the guidelines as set out in the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
Please do not add number before subtitles (This does not apply for Review or mini-review).
Citation of Tables and Figures
Tables and Figures should be numbered consecutively. Citation of tables and figures should use the format: Table 1, Table 2, ... Figure 1, Figure 2, ... (or Fig. 1, Fig. 2, ...). Parts in a figure can be identified by A, B, C, D, ... . and cited as Figure 2A, Figure 2B, Figure 2C. Please do not abbreviate the word "Table" to "Tab.".
Math Formulas and Symbols
Simple mathematical formulas should be constructed using superscript, subscript, italic, and symbols in the Microsoft Word.
- Use symbols in the Fonts: (normal text) or Symbol fonts. To insert a symbol, use Insert/symbol in the Word menu.
- Use / for "divide" or "over". For example, 1/7, 5/(4+6).
- Use Symbol fonts for "±"; "≤" and "≥" (avoid underline).
Please avoid using math equations in Word whenever possible, as they have to be replaced by images in xml full text.
References should be numbered consecutively starting from 1. One article per reference only (not 1a, 1b, 1c). References should cited in the manuscript text by numbers, e.g. [1,2,3], (not cited by author and date). Avoid putting personal communications, unpublished observations, conference abstracts or conference papers in references. Please do not format references as footnotes. A reference style for EndNote may be found here.
Please note the number of references must not exceed 200 for any article.
- Journal Paper
Please use the PubMed format. The sequence is as: [Author surname] [Author initials], [Other author surnames & initials]. [Article title]. [Journal name abbreviation]. [Year]; [Volume]: [First page number]-[Last page number].
- Journal paper must have journal name (or journal abbreviation), year, volume and page numbers.
- Please make sure that the year of publication is not missing.
- Please use ":" to separate volume and first page number.
- It is not necessary to highlight or italicize the title, journal name, or any part of references. Omit any "." in the journal abbreviations.
- 1. Eknoyan G, Beck GJ, Cheung AK, et al. Effect of dialysis dose and membrane flux in maintenance hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 2010-9.
- Supplement example:
2. Volk HD, Reinke P, Krausch D, et al. Monocyte deactivation-rationale for a new therapeutic strategy in sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 1996; 22 (Suppl 4):S474-S481.
- No author given example:
3. [No authors listed]. Medicare program; criteria for Medicare coverage of adult liver transplants-HCFA. Final notice. Fed Regist. 1991; 56(71):15006-15018.
- In press example:
4. Cheung TMT, et al. Effectiveness of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of acute respiratory failure in severe acute respiratory syndrome. Chest; in press.
- Epub ahead of print example:
5. Li W, Chen Y, Cameron DJ, et al. Elovl4 haploinsufficiency does not induce early onset retinal degeneration in mice. Vision Res 2007; [Epub ahead of print].
- Kiloh LG, Smith JS, Johnson GF, et al. Physical treatment in psychiatry. Boston, USA: Blackwell Scientific Publisher; 1988.
- Chapters in Edited Book
- Beckenbough RD, Linscheid RL. Arthroplasty in the hand and wrist. In: Green DP, ed. Operative Hand Surgery, 2nd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1988: 167-214.
- Web Site
- [Internet] WHO: Geneva, Switzerland. Summary of probable SARS cases with onset of illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003. Revised 26 September 2003. http://www.who.int/csr/sars/country/table2003_09_23/en/
- [Internet] Kornberg R. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2006/press.html
DOI: Please remove the "[pii]" field in any doi. E.g., doi:00932.2006 [pii] 10.1152/japplphysiol.00932.2006. Remove "00932.2006 [pii]".
Supplementary materials may include figures, tables, methods, videos, and other materials. They are available online linked to the original published article. Supplementary tables and figures should be labeled with a "S", e.g. "Table S1" and "Figure S1".
The maximum file size for supplementary materials is 10MB each. Please kept the files as small possible to avoid the frustrations experienced by readers with downloading large files.
Abbreviations must be presented in one paragraph, in the format: "term: definition". Please separate the items by ";". Please strictly follow the format.
E.g. HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; SIV: simian immunodeficiency virus; ....
Ethics Committee Approval and Patient Consent
Experimental research involving human or animals should have been approved by author's institutional review board or ethics committee. This information can be mentioned in the manuscript including the name of the board/committee that gave the approval. Investigations involving humans will have been performed in accordance with the principles of Declaration of Helsinki. And the use of animals in experiments will have observed the Interdisciplinary Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education by the New York Academy of Sciences, Ad Hoc Animal Research Committee.
If the manuscript contains photos or parts of photos of patients, informed consent from each patient should be obtained. Patient's identities and privacy should be carefully protected in the manuscript.
Competing interests that might interfere with the objective presentation of the research findings contained in the manuscript should be declared in a paragraph heading "Competing interests" (after Acknowledgment section and before References). Examples of competing interests are ownership of stock in a company, commercial grants, board membership, etc. If there is no competing interest, please use the statement "The authors have declared that no competing interest exists".
Authors now have the option to publish a biography together with the paper, with information such as MD/PhD degree, past and present positions, research interests, awards, etc. This increases the profile of the authors and is well received by international readers. Author biography can be added to the end of paper, in a section heading "Author biography". See samples of author biography, Sample A or Sample B.
Commercial advertising is not allowed in our journal.
Reprints can be ordered after copyediting and publication. Reprints are now printed on glossy paper with cover page. They are made of highest quality suitable for scientific corresponding.
For general information about preparing biomedical manuscripts, please consult the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication", available from http://www.icmje.org/.