J Biomed 2019; 4:44-54. doi:10.7150/jbm.35760 This volume

Research Paper

Revealing Stroke Analysis Markers for Studying Heterogeneous Disease State of Stroke

Nikitha Rajendran1, Mahadev Rao2, Narayanan Rajendran3✉

1. University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 42101. USA
2. Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India
3. Kentucky State University, Frankfort, Kentucky 40601. USA

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Rajendran N, Rao M, Rajendran N. Revealing Stroke Analysis Markers for Studying Heterogeneous Disease State of Stroke. J Biomed 2019; 4:44-54. doi:10.7150/jbm.35760. Available from http://www.jbiomed.com/v04p0044.htm

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Graphic abstract

Early diagnosis of Stroke is challenging due to a lack of dependable diagnostic tests. Currently, the mainstay in early detection is by monitoring health an individual through traditional risk factors such as hypertension. Seeking new determinants, relevant to millennial life style, is therefore warranted. This study reveals new Stroke Analysis Markers (SAM) including Phosphodiesterase-4D involved in cardioembolic stroke. In addition to traditional factors, new millennial risk factors such as molecular and cellular determinants were studied based on 68 years of stroke research data from 1951 to 2019. The rs152312 SNP from stroke patients of deCODE was queried in eNSEMBL, BLAST and other databases to study PDE4D isoforms. In addition, the role of infection, immune cells, inflammation, gut microbial dysbiosis, the prevalence pattern of stroke in geographically different populations were analyzed. This study identified five new millennial risk factors as potentially helpful Stroke Analysis Markers for stroke by conjoining them as a single set of five parasol factors. They include genomic, microbiologic, immunologic, socio-epigenetic factors including two contig and alternative splicing markers along with their prevalence patterns among various populations. Taking appropriate preventive management by monitoring these new risk factors in high-risk individuals during annual checkup could help physicians to make an informed decision. Though significant challenges remain to be solved further large-scale studies on parasol factors will certainly unlock the secrets of early prediction of stroke.

Keywords: Stroke, Stroke Analysis Markers, Phosphodiesterase-4D