J Biomed 2018; 3:40-49. doi:10.7150/jbm.23390


Muscle and Bone Mass Loss in the Elderly Population: Advances in diagnosis and treatment

Carlos J. Padilla Colón1,2✉, Irma L. Molina-Vicenty2,4,5, María Frontera-Rodríguez2,4, Alejandra García-Ferré2,4, Bernabejoel Ponce Rivera3, Gerardo Cintrón-Vélez2,4, Sebastián Frontera-Rodríguez2,4

1. Department of Education, Physical Education and Health Programs, San Juan, PR, USA
2. Research and Development Service (151), VA Caribbean Healthcare System, San Juan PR, USA
3. Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus, Mayaguez, PR, USA
4. Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR, USA
5. Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA


Aging is the result of different functional changes leading to a substantial reduction of all human capabilities. A variety of anatomical and physiological changes occur with advancing age. These changes are more evident in the elderly population. There are various methods to measure muscle and bone mass loss, but the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered one of the most efficient. The elderly population (65 years and older) has been increasing throughout the years. Loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and loss bone mass (osteopenia or osteoporosis) with advancing age, when untreated, represent a major public health problem for the elderly population and may result in loss of independence in later life. Untreated age-related sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis increase the risk for falls and fractures, making older individuals more susceptible to the development of mobility limitations or severe disabilities that ultimately affect their capacity for independence. In this review, we will discuss the muscle and bone mass loss in the elderly population and advances in diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: Sarcopenia, Osteopenia, Osteoporosis

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How to cite this article:
Padilla Colón CJ, Molina-Vicenty IL, Frontera-Rodríguez M, García-Ferré A, Rivera BP, Cintrón-Vélez G, Frontera-Rodríguez S. Muscle and Bone Mass Loss in the Elderly Population: Advances in diagnosis and treatment. J Biomed 2018; 3:40-49. doi:10.7150/jbm.23390. Available from http://www.jbiomed.com/v03p0040.htm