Exosomes: Biological Couriers with Transformative Messages
1. Biotechnology Graduate Program, School of Sciences and Engineering, the American University in Cairo
2. Institute of Global Health and Human Ecology, School of Sciences and Engineering, the American University in Cairo.
Exosomes are nanovesicles produced by almost all cell types to the extracellular environment. These structures, initially mistaken for “cellular dust”, are key effectors of cell-cell communication and play major roles in maintaining normal physiological function and homeostatic balance as well as relaying pathology. Given their non-immunogenicity, their native membrane composition combined with the wealth of contained bioinfomative cargoes and coupled to their innate ability to cross multiple biological barriers, these tiny sacs have merited a great deal of interest in recent years and are slowly edging their way to the surface. Accruing evidence corroborating the far-reaching potential of exosomes is ever growing and easily demonstrable. Nonetheless, progress with translation of the reported outcomes to clinical settings and recognition of these tools as a multi-application platform remains much too inadequate for the outstanding potential of these biological messengers and the entailed shift in theragnostic paradigms. The purpose of this review is to recapitulate on the most recent advances in exosome research and accentuate their momentous promise as game changers in disease diagnostics and therapeutics. Finally, market transition and commercialization efforts are highlighted with a brief commentary on the status quo.
Keywords: Exosomes, Extracellular Vesicles, EVs, Biomarkers, Theragnostic